The gap happened because the 737MAX wasn’t part of the original plan.
The 767 and 757 shared a type rating and a lot of common parts, and orders had dried up for both, so they didn’t have much choice about ending production. The 737 was getting pretty old too. However, the replacement of the 747 with the 777 was going well, so why not keep going and replace everything?
Boeing’s replacement for the 767 was the 787, which was received very well despite being a radical change. Not only did it quickly kill off demand for the 767, it also started replacing 747s and (oops) 777s.
The next step was to downsize the 787 to make the New Midsize Aircraft (NMA), which would replace the 757 and 737NG.
However, Southwest Airlines(SWA) pushed back hard on having a second type in their fleet (they fly all 737s). If Boeing forced them to do that, they would switch to Airbus. Boeing had to re-engine the 737 or lose their most loyal customer.
So, the folks that were supposed to develop the NMA were shifted to what became the 737MAX. The MAX9 wasn’t large enough to replace the 757, but that was okay because they were still assuming the NMA would eventually get built, so the gap it left in their lineup (as seen in your chart) was only temporary.
However, the MAX took a lot longer to launch than expected and then the MCAS fiasco cost them a ton of money and goodwill in the market, so rather than lose a decade launching the NMA into that gap, they did another cheap hack to the 737 (since that went so well the last time) to produce the MAX10.
Now that the hole in the product line is closed, there’s no longer a clear market segment for the NMA, so it was canceled for good.