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Since non movement areas are not controlled by ATC, does that mean the FAA doesn’t have jurisdiction in them? Are NMAs privately owned property inside of a government owned property (I.e FBOs)? Are there rules guiding aircraft in NMAs?

Example: The FAA says transponders should be turned on before taxiing. Does this include NMAs?

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    $\begingroup$ Given your latest comments saying you've meant a much wider scope, I've deleted my answer since it focused on explaining the transponder example, but feel free to edit your Q to make the scope clearer, but be sure to stay within the realm of aviation regulations, and not say a local government (the property damage example), as that would typically be more on topic for Law Stack Exchange. $\endgroup$
    – user14897
    Mar 9 at 16:26

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The FAA has “jurisdiction” over any aircraft operating in the US, including in places that aren’t airports at all.

A “movement area” is just the portion of an airport where ATC controls movement. It has no effect on any other regulations, such as transponder use.

Consider that the vast majority of airports don’t even have a movement area because they don’t have a control tower. All the other rules still apply.

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    $\begingroup$ To reinforce your answer, the FAA FARs (pertinent parts) apply to the operation of an aircraft anywhere including airports, your backyard, on a lake, etc. Compliance with pertinent regulations is not limited to movement areas at airports. $\endgroup$
    – 757toga
    Mar 9 at 19:46

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