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When increasing the angle of attack, the Cl and adverse pressure gradient rise. Does boundary layer thickness rise as well?

Or has an airfoil with higher Cl a thicker boundary layer?

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To make a comparison I would set the condition. So the question would be: "Considering two airfoil with the same geometry and at the same Reynolds number, how would change the BL thickness with increasing AoA?" Another thing that would make the question more clear would be to consider a definition of the boundary layer thickness, and here I would define it as the displacement thickness (other definition are certainly possible). Clarified this you have a possible answer to your question in this AIAA SciTech paper. enter image description here On the left you see at different AoA the development of the boundary layer displacement thickness at Reynolds 60000 simulated with XFLR software. You can observe the propagation of the LSB bubble upstream with the increase of the angle of attack and this cause an increase of the displacement boundary layer thickness behind the bubble.

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