Stelios is pointing you in the right direction: the video maps incorporate elements from the various published charts but are not a direct copy of any of them (and are not updated nearly as often).
In my experience at a TRACON in the United States:
There are many different maps we can select, including no map (a blank scope). Which information is separable (i.e. on distinct maps) can vary by facility.
In general order of importance, the maps can show:
- The sector boundaries, both with surrounding controls and the boundaries of internal sectors. These can and do change with airport configuration (landing and departing runways).
- The Minimum Vectoring Altitudes and prominent obstructions.
- An "Emergency Obstructions" map displaying all known obstructions to assist in giving advisories to aircraft in distress flying below the MVA.
- Any special-use airspace or TFRs.
- Airports and ground-based navaids.
- Runway final approach courses.
- Instrument approach fixes.
- SID/STAR/airway fixes.
- Other fixes commonly used for coordination.
- SID/STAR/airway routes.
- Airspace class (B/C/D/TRSA).
- Visual/geographic features like highways, train tracks, lakes and rivers, the coastline, etc.
Again depending on the facility, some of these are always visible—that is they are all combined on a single "base" map—and some may be toggled on or off. The older systems could only store six different maps; I'm not sure what the limit is for the current system but it's significantly more than that, at least 30.
I'm not experienced with the process of creating and editing the maps but they're vector images created by reference to lat/long coordinates, which allows the controller to zoom in or out and pan in all four directions while keeping the symbols where they should be relative to the ground and the radar site.
The video maps are not published, though the MVA charts are (with caveat of "not valid for navigation"). If you're interested in the maps used at a specific facility you will have to submit a FOIA request to the FAA.
If you're interested in just having the information to see for your own unofficial use I would look into VATSIM as @mins mentioned in a comment. They have hobbyist-level software that has already been developed to display video maps in a relatively realistic manner, and they have relatively realistic video map files to go with it. There's no need to reinvent the wheel, at least until you determine that the existing wheel doesn't work for you.