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I have a feeling that Turbofan engines are used in jet fighters and Turbojet engines are used in cargo or passenger aircraft.

Is my perception correct?

Do jet fighters use Turbojet engines?

Do cargo/passenger aircraft use Turbofan engines?

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No

Turbojets were mainly used in the Fourties and Fifties. As soon as pressure ratios had become high enough to allow adding a fan stage, turbofans replaced them. And the distinction is less between civilian and military engines but between low-bypass-ratio and high-bypass-ratio.

Civilian jets which used the same engines as military ones did so because there was not much else available: From the de Havilland Ghost in the Comet and the de Havilland Venom to the GE J79 in the Convair 880 and the F-104 Starfighter or the B-58 Hustler (in the two latter ones with an added afterburner) both sides shared the same engines.

For the rest of the story I refer you to this answer.

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Pretty much all "jet" aircraft designed since the 1960s (if not the late 1950s) have used turbofan engines, and bypass ratios have tended to increase over that time frame, as higher bypass tends to produce more thrust for a given specific fuel consumption.

The Boeing 707 and older versions of the B-52 bomber (both introduced close to 1960) are examples of aircraft designs with turbojets -- but pretty nearly everything newer, including fighters as well as bombers and transport aircraft, have used turbofan power.

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    $\begingroup$ Concorde's Olympus was an exception, though. $\endgroup$
    – Zeus
    Aug 17, 2021 at 1:32
  • $\begingroup$ @Zeus When Concorde was designed (first flown 1969) turbofans weren't quite ready for supercruise. By the time it entered commercial service (1976), they were just about getting there. Supersonic was the last bastion of the no-bypass turbojet. $\endgroup$
    – Zeiss Ikon
    Aug 17, 2021 at 11:02

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