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I am working on the construction of an atmospheric model that calculates GHG emissions from aviation transport in France, as input I need an aviation traffic report as well as information on the type of aircraft (e.g Airbus A380). To get this information, I am going to 'build' an ADS-B ground station, but I am wondering if the aircraft type information is included in the ADS-B signal?

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No, the airplane type is not in the signal. The identification contains the ICAO 24bit (Mode S) code. You then need to map that to a registration which will have the type. As mentioned in the comments, services like ADSBexchange and OpenSky attempt to do that mapping as part of their information processing.

So if you extracted ID 0x4840d6 from the message, you could do a lookup to find it's registered in the Netherlands as a Fokker F70.

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