Some European fighters like Eurofighter use frontal surfaces for pitch control. Does any US fighter use this configuration? And what are these surfaces called?
These surfaces are called canards.
To my knowledge no canard equipped fighter ever entered service with the armed forces, though there were a few experimental prototypes such as the CCV/AFTI F-16 or the F-15 ACTIVE which made use of canard foreplanes.
The Grumman X-29, Rockwell X-31, and Boeing X-36 are other examples of US technology demonstrators which made use of canards for extreme maneuvering, none of which were ever pursued further for development into a fighter aircraft.