Which information pilot can change in-flight? For example:
- Altitude. Ask to climb higher?
- V to Z. VFR rules to IFR (VFR to IFR)?
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Anything and everything (well, maybe not the aircraft type...). A flightplan is just that - a plan. The pilot's intentions can change during flight for any number of reasons. Just inform ATC of your new intentions, request a new clearance as appropriate, and ATC will accommodate the request if possible. Happens all the time.
Very common request. The pilot simply makes the request, and the controller issues the climb or descent after checking to make sure the altitude is clear. The controller then updates the aircraft's flight plan so the next controller down the line knows about the new altitude.
If the aircraft is not within the control of the controller they're talking to (e.g. a radar handoff has occurred and the pilot has switched to the new frequency, but is not yet within the airspace the new controller has responsibility for) then the controller must effect coordination before issuing the altitude change. Or perhaps the aircraft is right at the top of the controller's airspace; in that case the controller will update the flight plan to show the requested altitude (thus enabling the track to be handed off to the controller above), perform the handoff, and tell the pilot to make their request with the new controller.
This assumes the pilot is on an IFR flight plan. VFR pilots are permitted to fly at any appropriate VFR cruising altitude unless instructed otherwise. It's best practice to give the controller a notification when beginning a climb or descent, though.
This is another simple change; on the technical side, the controller makes two entries: one to enable Minimum Safe Altitude Warning processing, and one to indicate on the flight plan that the aircraft is no longer VFR. Or, if the aircraft is not yet on flight following, they must enter enough information into the system to generate a flight plan and squawk code for the flight.
On the regulations side, the controller must ensure the aircraft is in a position where issuing an IFR clearance would not be illegal—they must not be too close to another IFR aircraft, or in/near special-use airspace or airspace belonging to another controller. Also, Standard Operating Procedures and Letters of Agreement may impose restrictions on the route for an IFR flight that a VFR flight would not have to comply with.
To my knowledge, just about anything may be edited, as expeditedescent pointed out. Route or even destination can be changed. Aircraft equipment code or even type code can be corrected, if it was entered incorrectly. Some things, such as fuel on board, aircraft markings, pilot's name, and the like—things unrelated to the actual control of the flight—require a call to FSS, as ATC does not have access to them.
However, I do not believe there is a way for the pilot to directly edit any of this information after they submit it. They must call either FSS or ATC.