The autopilot controls hydraulic actuator that is connected to the control link at some point. Since power transfer in the link is bidirectional, the control column moves when autopilot operates it. The same goes for thrust levers operated by autothrust.
If the pilot fights it, the autopilot will increase the force applied up to some limit at which it will disconnect. It can't really recognize whether the force is from the pilot or due to aerodynamic forces, but that's all right, because it should disconnect both if the pilot tries to yank the controls and when keeping the plane in the selected attitude requires too large control input (e.g. hard up elevator because the plane is too slow).
Boeing aircraft maintains this behaviour even on models with fly-by-wire (B777 and B787). Airbus did remove the feedback, because the command given does not directly correspond to control surface position anyway. So far I believe the only other civilian aircraft without feedback is Sukhoi Su-100.