I am a CFI who teaches at a large (+200 students) flight school in the United States. You might be surprised to hear this, but...
We really don't worry about how a wing works that much.
As far as I'm concerned, the technical explanation for how a wing works is a subject for the engineers who build and design such things. Private pilot applicants (at least all of the ones that I have met) are more concerned with things like "How do I get the plane into the air??" and "What do I do if it starts coming back down again in a hurry?"
In fact, Van Sickle's Modern Airmanship starts off the chapter on aerodynamics by saying (paraphrased):
Some of the concepts presented in this chapter are wrong, but they are useful illustrations.
So, to answer your question, we teach that:
- The alignment of the wing to the relative wind displaces air downward, which creates lift.
- Because of the shape of the airfoil, air on top of the wing has a lower pressure than air below the wing, which also causes lift.
And unless a student asks us for more information, we leave it at that.
If you hope to become an aircraft designer or research fluid dynamics, you'll quickly be corrected of any misconceptions you may have about Mr. Bernoulli and his asymmetric wing. Most student pilots, however, are satisfied with a pre-discussion "What we'll talk about today isn't technically correct, but you'll find it a lot easier to understand the necessary concepts this way."
Peter Kämpf made a worthwhile comment:
It is really not so hard to understand aerodynamics correctly, and you
make it sound as if you prefer a short term gain over a profound basis
which could help pilots to really understand what happens with their
plane and to select the most appropriate action.
Which is very true - it's not difficult to understand aerodynamics correctly. I'll defend my viewpoint with an analogy: Consider a store where you are shopping with a child who doesn't yet understand decimal addition. You have two purchases, one costing
$5.08 and one costing
$3.99. The child adds the big numbers and tells you that the final price will be
$8. You now have (at least) two choices: you could begin a discussion of significant figures and fractional multiplication (can't forget tax!), or you could praise the child for applying the skills they do have and getting an answer which is pretty close.
Is it better if the child eventually understands how to calculate tax rather than simply trusting what the cashier reads off the screen? Of course. But at the stage where most of my students are, it's much more valuable to their development as pilots to simply praise them for being close enough.
As regards JAL123, I am in 100% agreement with you. By the time you as a pilot have progressed sufficiently in your development to be flying something with a turbine pushing it, you should certainly know the principles and concepts of your machine to the highest degree of accuracy.