Consider KBIV (Holland) in west Michigan:

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Now consider the ILS / LOC to Rwy 26 at KBIV:

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  1. There is a note on the IAP: "Procedure NA for arrival on PMM VOR/DME airway radials 004 CW 091" Does this mean only V55, V193, V274 or V170 or does it mean any radial between 004 to 091 off of PMM?
  2. There is no feeder route on the plate with NoPT. Does this mean the course reversal at JAVPO is mandatory?

From experience, most of the time, it is vectors to final without a course reversal. My question is more about the charting, not the real world result, and what to do if the radar was broken that day...

How do I get to KBIV?


To answer question #1, you are not allowed to use this approach when arriving to the PMM VOR from radial degree numbers 004 ascending to 091. This means that you can not fly in to PMM from the Northish, Northeast, or East. This is probably to avoid conflict with the major congested area of Grand Rapids and its associated airport’s Class B airspace. Also, V170 is no longer an active victor airway. And, PMM R-29 is unusable for VOR only navigation. However, this does not preclude using this approach for local flights and radar vectoring where an arrival would not be necessary.

To answer question #2, the course reversal at JAVPO is not mandatory. It is a Holding pattern in lieu of procedure turns. JAVPO is the Intermediate Fix for the approach. You can use JAVPO or its associated intermediate leg as a gate for a straight-in approach on the IAP. Just state your intentions and get clearance to maintain spacing and separation.

Wbeard52 has given a great acronym to remember when a procedure turn is not required. Another one to remember is the one derived from the FAA‘s list of situations not requiring a procedure turn included in the Instrument Flying Handbook. It is the acronym taught to prepare for the FAA written knowledge test and the practical checkride.


  1. Straight in approaches
  2. Hold in lieu of procedure turns
  3. Arc approaches
  4. Radar vectoring
  5. No Pt noted on the approach
  6. Teardrop course reversal approaches
  7. Timed (start) approaches

One point to note is that a procedure turn should be planned anytime the angle inbound to join the approach will result in a turn of greater than 90°. This means that flying from PMM on the 033 radial direct to JAVPO without vectoring would result in a course reversal. However, you could hold on the published hold at PMM to get set up for the approach. This would necessitate holding at a traditionally very busy (aircraft dense) fix, though. Probably something both you and ATC want to avoid for a GA aircraft if possible.


I would plan to cross PMM from the west and then proceed outbound on the 033° to JAVPO and perform the hold in lieu of procedure turn and then proceed inbound. ATC does not want you to fly almost 180 turn at PMM so coming from the northeast is no good and so it is marked NA (not approved).

A procedure is always required when it is charted with four exceptions. Think the acronym SNoRT.

  • S - Straight - In. ATC clears you using the words "Straight - In." N12345 proceed direct JAVPO cleared straight-in ILS RWY 26.
  • No - NoPT on shown on a route on the instrument plate
  • R - Radar Vectors to final. N12345 5 miles from JAVPO fly heading 240° till established on the localizer. Cleared ILS RWY 26 approach.
  • T - Timed approaches are in use. Either ATIS will tell you timed approaches are in use or the pilot hears a time to cross the FAF and that would be a good indication that timed approaches are in use. (Very uncommon)

This is simply saying you can't approach the VOR from the northeast and then do a 180 back to the approach. Even if you could do that, you still wouldn't want to do that: why fly 22 miles past the 'IF' and then turn around? That would just be silly.

Ideally, you would either 1) simply enter and fly the hold as your entry method, 2) get "cleared straight-in" from ATC when they issue your clearance, or 3) get radar vectors to the final approach course from ATC.


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