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Does Sweden manufacture its own jet engine for JAS Gripen, or does it purchase engines from the USA?

I read on the internet that Gripen's engine is a modified American engine by Volvo. Does that mean that they purchase an engine from the USA and then modify it, or, did they purchase the design, and now they are independent for their own manufacturing?

I am curious to know if the USA's 2% export rules apply to these engines. I.e. if Sweden wants to export JAS39 to a 3rd country, they will have to get permission from the USA's govt.

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    $\begingroup$ "I read on the internet..." It might be useful if you include the source of this claim in your question $\endgroup$ – expeditedescent Aug 10 at 13:55
  • $\begingroup$ From your Wikipedia link: "General Electric produces 50% of the engine. Elements such as the fan/compressor discs and case, compressor spool, hubs, seals, and afterburner are manufactured in Sweden, final assembly also taking place there." What else do you want to know? $\endgroup$ – Bianfable Aug 10 at 14:17
  • $\begingroup$ @Bianfable, I am curious to know if the USA's 2% export rules apply to these engines. I.e. if Sweden wants to export JAS39 to a 3rd country, they will have to get permission from the USA's govt. $\endgroup$ – user366312 Aug 10 at 14:22
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    $\begingroup$ Now I'm wandering if there is a single aircraft entirely built (enelctronic, hydraulics, tires, engine, materials, seats,...) by one country only... and its consequences on export restriction. $\endgroup$ – Manu H Aug 10 at 17:11
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The most correct answer I can give is, It depends. More specifically, it depends on the specific components that are US sourced and it depends on who the ultimate end user is. But the most likely answer is yes.

All technology exports from the US fall under one of two sets of rules. They are the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) controlled by the Dept of State and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) controlled by the Dept of Commerce.

The US engines (F404/F414) that are the source of parts for the Volvo engines are military products controlled by the ITAR. When parts are exported separately from the complete engine, the export controls are set at the part level. So some parts may be controlled differently than others. But, in general any part controlled by the ITAR will require a license from the Dept of State before it can be exported. It is also possible that some components may be EAR controlled and require a license from the Dept of Commerce.

The licenses for export do contain restrictions on use, the end user, and reexport. That is typically spelled out in the individual license. Also, the 'technology' needed to transform the parts into an engine is controlled separately. That includes drawings, software, tooling, etc.

The question of reexport is covered in the ITAR under 22 CFR §123.9 Country of ultimate destination and approval of reexports or retransfers, and 22 CFR §123.10 Non-transfer and use assurances.

Specifically, from §123.9

(a) The country designated as the country of ultimate destination on an application for an export license, or in an Electronic Export Information filing where an exemption is claimed under this subchapter, must be the country of ultimate end-use. The written approval of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls must be obtained before reselling, transferring, reexporting, retransferring, transshipping, or disposing of a defense article to any end-user, end-use, or destination other than as stated on the export license, or in the Electronic Export Information filing in cases where an exemption is claimed under this subchapter, except in accordance with the provisions of an exemption under this subchapter that explicitly authorizes the resell, transfer, reexport, retransfer, transshipment, or disposition of a defense article without such approval. Exporters must determine the specific end-user, end-use, and destination prior to submitting an application to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or claiming an exemption under this subchapter.

(b) The exporter, U.S. or foreign, must inform the end-user and all consignees that the defense articles being exported are subject to U.S. export laws and regulations as follows:

(1) The exporter must incorporate the following information as an integral part of the commercial invoice, whenever defense articles are to be shipped (exported in tangible form), retransferred (in tangible form), or reexported (in tangible form) pursuant to a license or other approval under this subchapter:

(i) The country of ultimate destination;

(ii) The end-user;

(iii) The license or other approval number or exemption citation; and

(iv) The following statement: “These items are controlled by the U.S. government and authorized for export only to the country of ultimate destination for use by the ultimate consignee or end-user(s) herein identified. They may not be resold, transferred, or otherwise disposed of, to any other country or to any person other than the authorized ultimate consignee or end-user(s), either in their original form or after being incorporated into other items, without first obtaining approval from the U.S. government or as otherwise authorized by U.S. law and regulations.”

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