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If you have been cleared to LCA (from the direction shown by the red arrow) then outbound on the procedure, what is correct way to get established on the outbound track?

Ideally, I'm looking for an ICAO/PANS-OPS reference or similar (not US).

Many thanks!

---- Edited for clarity ----

So, to avoid a situation like this:

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What is the correct action to take?

Is it to request the arrival pattern hold to better align yourself:

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Or manoeuvring space to the south to better align yourself:

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Or something else?

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    $\begingroup$ Realistically, if approaching from the east, you would probably fly the ILS/VOR Y via AMAKO (i.imgur.com/PPyQrWR.png) or the ILS/VOR S via SOBOS (i.imgur.com/qk1cFlY.png). Still a valid and interesting question for theoretical purposes. $\endgroup$ – expeditedescent Aug 3 at 6:28
  • $\begingroup$ Intersections include obstacle clearance for wide turns in your first example, some of these limit turns to less than 120degrees. It is expected to turn early to avoid going far beyond the intersection, this requires some extra navigation to estimate the start of the turn; dme, gpss, or another VOR. At 210kts a standard rate turn has a 1.1NM radius, so start 90 degree turn about 1.1NM before the intersection. 120deg 2.0NM and 135deg 2.7NM. At half the speed it is half the radius. I might also favor the south side of the inbound course for extra margin. $\endgroup$ – Max Power Sep 2 at 21:25
  • $\begingroup$ This turn angle is large enough that I would consider a left turn, or request hold pattern if in cat C or D. A continuous left turn to 025 [to intercept R053 or R062] is not holding, you would make use of the holding obstacle-clearance area but you would not request a hold. Your inbound course overlaps with the hold area anyway so ATC can not use the hold at your altitude in any case. $\endgroup$ – Max Power Sep 2 at 21:29
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I do not have a specific ICAO reference. By my interpretation of the chart, you can approach the airport at any assigned altitude above 2300 feet MSL from your specified East direction. Just as long as your aircraft stays between the 71° radial clockwise to the 215° radial of the VOR. But, you would have to be above 4900 MSL to intercept any part of the instrument approach. Once you are established on the approach, you can drop down to the appropriate designated at-or-above altitude marked on the approach. If you are joining the approach at the LCA VOR, you would enter the hold, either climbing or descending until you reach an altitude where you can safely descend down to 1500 feet MSL during the teardrop course reversal. Remember, you have to remain at or above 4000 feet MSL until passing the VOR when leaving the hold. This will be your Minimum Holding Altitude as well as your Minimum Crossing Altitude at the LCA VOR.

If you have already been cleared for the procedure at LCA, you would just have to make your radio call once you reach the VOR for the hold, and again at the VOR when you leave the hold (if one is necessary to gain/lose altitude).

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    $\begingroup$ To answer the specific question: When arriving in the direction of the red arrow, enter the hold at LCA by flying a parallel entry. $\endgroup$ – Gerry Aug 1 at 23:12
  • $\begingroup$ @Gerry - You are correct about the recommended but not required entry into the hold being a parallel one. But, was the original question about the correct method to enter the hold? I read it as how do aircraft join the procedure. After all, if a Cat A or B aircraft’s heading were Northwest instead of West, no hold would be necessary nor advised. The hold is simply a convenient way to adjust altitude and avoid sharp turns. The hold is not an obligatory part of the procedure. It is strictly optional. Hence the thin vs thick lines. $\endgroup$ – Dean F. Aug 2 at 0:12
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the reply! I've edited the original question to clarify what I'm asking $\endgroup$ – user51746 Aug 3 at 6:36
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There are 3 types of holding patterns on charts.

1. Holding in lieu of procedure turn: depicted as bold line, same as the rest of the descent. It's expected by ATC that pilot will fly it.

2. Arrival pattern holding: depicted as a thinner line than the rest of the approach. You can not use that holding, unless directed by ATC or requested from ATC.

Here is an excerpt from this Jeppesen Chart Legend, pg-Approach 3, item 16:

Holding/Racetrack patterns are shown with both inbound and outbound bearings. Restrictions are charted when applicable, heavy weight tracks indicate the holding/racetrack is required.

3. Missed approach holding: depicted with dashed line to be used after executing missed approach.

So, in your case the holding pattern is 2nd one and you are not authorized to use it unless directed by ATC. One thing you can do is to fly slightly south so that you can create enough turning room for yourself in order to pass the VOR on north-east heading and start your descent. Requesting a maneuvering space for that would be a wise move.

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    $\begingroup$ That really doesn't sound right to me. Could you provide a source for the claim that the thinner line is not just an illustrative choice? Besides, on the official chart from the AIP, the line depicting the holding has the same boldness as the rest of the procedure: i.imgur.com/zqV4D0f.png $\endgroup$ – expeditedescent Aug 3 at 6:24
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for the reply! I've edited the original question to clarify what I'm asking $\endgroup$ – user51746 Aug 3 at 6:36
  • $\begingroup$ @expeditedescent, I added the reference. And if you can check that link, both Jeppesen and FAA illustrate the holding with a thin line. Maybe we need to check dates on the one you provided and the one OP gave. A change may be issued if they are not the same date. $\endgroup$ – Kolom Aug 3 at 13:17
  • $\begingroup$ "Heavy weight tracks indicate the holding/racetrack is required". To me that is not the same as " You cannot use that holding unless directed by ATC" $\endgroup$ – expeditedescent Aug 3 at 13:32
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    $\begingroup$ Also, as far as I can tell, "Holding in lieu of procedure turn" is an FAA-term. Are you sure this applies in Europe? $\endgroup$ – expeditedescent Aug 3 at 13:33

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