What are some examples of holding instructions and how to enter them? I understand entry with direct, teardrop, and parallel. Just having a hard time coming up with formulating the procedure. Example; C172 hold south of ABC VORTAC. Does that mean race track is the 360 radial and holding south of the vortac?
Remember, radials come from a fix. You cannot hold south of a VOR on the 360 radial in the same way that you could not hold east on a 270 radial using the VOR as the holding fix.
You could hold south on a 360 radial, but the fix would have to be somewhere away from the VOR. For example, if you're told to hold south of the 10DME on the 360 radial, that could be done.
What that would mean is that your fix, for the purposes of the inbound course, would be the 360 radial of the VOR at the 10 DME distance. So your racetrack pattern would be south of the point 10 miles north of the VOR (per the compass rose's north).
A holding instruction will usually include:
- A fix,
- A bearing or radial on which to travel for your inbound leg,
- A turn instruction (if the turn is not the standard right turn)
- A time or distance to travel on your inbound leg.
- A cardinal direction of disambiguation for redundancy to keep you on the correct side of the fix.
- An Expect Further Clearance time.
In GA flight, I have never received a non-published hold from ATC. Although, I have requested and received clearance plenty of non-published holds during training as well as my checkride.
Research AIM 5-3-8 for further details.