Which industry first started to develop CFD? (aviation,car-industry,meterology or maybe someone else)
The foundation for CFD is the Navier-Stokes equations, published in 1822. The first application of CFD was in aviation in the 1930s; this analyzed two-dimensional flow, computations were done by hand. Then meteorology in the 1940s. Most of the early work was done in academic and government research circles, the first large-scale user was the Los Alamos National Laboratory (for work related to nuclear weapons). NASA was also an early user.
By 1967, Douglas Aircraft was using and developing CFD. Boeing published some of their work in 1968.
CFD in fact was developed by the aviation industry due to the need to calculate transonic and hypersonic flow over airfoils and wings.
In 1960s and 1970s with the emergence of the concepts of aircraft such as 777 which would fly in the transonic regime, it was important to calculate the viscous flow field around the aircraft accurately (simple, but elegant rules like Prandtl-Glauert rule did not suffice).