In general, a go-around, in a jetliner, must either be performed before thrust reverser deployment, or not at all. This is because, if a go-around is attempted after the reversers have been deployed, there is no guarantee that all reversers will completely stow before the aircraft lifts off (at which point the reverser actuators are automatically locked out and depressurised1); if even a single reverser bucket or clamdoor is not fully stowed at this point, it will be blown back to its fully-deployed position by the aerodynamic forces on said piece of reverser hardware, potentially resulting in a loss of control of the aircraft.
However, some aircraft are capable of, and certified for, the safe use of reverse thrust in flight (typically to steepen descents by using reverse thrust as an airbrake, or to shorten the landing roll by deploying the reversers while still airborne rather than having to wait until after touchdown), and, as such, the reversers on these aircraft are not locked out when airborne. Consequently, even if the aircraft lifted off before all reversers had fully stowed, the reversers would simply continue to stow, no harm done.
This would be especially important for aircraft like the Tu-154 and Il-62, which routinely deploy reversers before touchdown, which would completely preclude very-low-altitude go-arounds if going around after reverser deployment was prohibited on these aircraft.
Are aircraft certified for in-flight thrust reversal (and, thus, not equipped with an in-flight reverser lockout mechanism) allowed to go around even after the thrust reversers have been deployed?
1: This is done to minimise the risk of an uncommanded in-flight reverser deployment, which, for aircraft not certified for in-flight thrust reversal, is generally bad.