I was researching about the Boeing 737 MAX, and came across some information on a Business Insider page:
But in the 2010s, Boeing tried to replicate the success of the 737NG with the 737 Max. But this time, it wasn't simply competing with Airbus; it was playing catch-up. Boeing began to discuss a successor for the 737 as early as 2006, looking at both putting new, more efficient engines on an existing 737 airframe, or starting from scratch with a brand new airframe. Boeing knew that Airbus was similarly exploring an A320 replacement, but both companies were still in early stages.It was still trying to decide in 2010, when Airbus launched the A320neo family (neo = new engine option). The jets used the original A319, A320, and A321 airframes, but used new engines that offered a 15-20% increase in fuel efficiency, consequently lowering operating costs and giving the planes longer ranges. Airbus has since released two longer-range variants of the neo family — the A321LR and A321XLR.
Then the article began talking about how it could take up to 10 years for Boeing to create the new aircraft, so instead of creating a completely new airplane, Boeing decided to just add bigger engines.
Now my question is, why does it take so long to develop a new passenger aircraft?