# What does it mean "two plane thrust vectoring nozzle"?

It has been said that only Sukhoi 35 has the "two plane TVN" others like F 22 and Su 30MKI (produced by India under license at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited) have "one plane TVN".So what the difference ?

• Substitute "axis" for "plane" and the meaning may become clearer. Commented Apr 1, 2020 at 12:45
• Two planes connected by one nozzle. Commented Feb 15, 2021 at 17:03

This statement is using "plane" in the mathematical-geometric sense, which is of course very confusing when we talk about a part of a "plane" in the "flying machine" sense.

So, a "one-plane" thrust vectoring nozzle can only move up and down or left and right (typically up and down). So, this gives you pitch control using the thrust, without requiring airflow over the elevators. This is sometimes called "1D" thrust-vectoring, but it is also (confusingly) sometimes called "2D" thrust-vectoring (see the last paragraph).

A "two-plane" thrust vectoring nozzle can move up and down and left and right. So, this gives you yaw control without using the rudder in addition to pitch control. This is sometimes called "2D" thrust-vectoring, but it is also (confusingly) sometimes called "3D" thrust-vectoring (see the last paragraph).

In a two-engine aircraft, in both cases, you can add another "virtual" axis by having independent vectoring of the two nozzles, e.g. one up and one down, which gives you roll control. That is why, for two-engined aircraft, we sometimes talk about "2D" and "3D" even if the individual nozzles only can move on one or two dimensions.

For those who don't know

"thrust vectoring, also thrust vector control or TVC, is the ability of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle to manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine(s) or motor(s) to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle.

In rocketry and ballistic missiles that fly outside the atmosphere, aerodynamic control surfaces are ineffective, so thrust vectoring is the primary means of attitude control.

For aircraft, the method was originally envisaged to provide upward vertical thrust as a means to give aircraft vertical (VTOL) or short (STOL) takeoff and landing ability. Subsequently, it was realized that using vectored thrust in combat situations enabled aircraft to perform various maneuvers not available to conventional-engined planes. To perform turns, aircraft that use no thrust vectoring must rely on aerodynamic control surfaces only, such as ailerons or elevator; craft with vectoring must still use control surfaces, but to a lesser extent."

-Methods of thrust vectoring

-Type I

-Nozzles whose baseframe mechanically is rotated before the geometrical throat.

-Type II

-Nozzles whose baseframe is mechanically rotated at the geometrical throat.

-Type III

Nozzles whose baseframe is not rotated. Rather, the addition of mechanical deflection post-exit vanes or paddles enables jet deflection.

-Type IV

"Jet deflection through counter-flowing or co-flowing (by shock-vector control or throat shifting) auxiliary jet streams. Fluid-based jet deflection using secondary fluidic injection. Additional type Nozzles whose upstream exhaust duct consists of wedge-shaped segments which rotate relative to each other about the duct centreline.

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II while using a conventional afterburning turbofan (Pratt & Whitney F135) to facilitate supersonic operation, the F-35B variant, developed for joint usage by the US Marine Corps, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Italian Navy, also incorporates a vertically mounted, low-pressure shaft-driven remote fan, which is driven through a clutch during landing from the engine. Both the exhaust from this fan and the main engine's fan are deflected by thrust vectoring nozzles, to provide the appropriate combination of lift and propulsive thrust. It is not conceived for enhanced maneuverability in combat, only for VTOL operation, and the F-35A and F-35C do not use thrust vectoring at all.

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI, produced by India under license at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, is in active service with the Indian Air Force. The TVC makes the aircraft highly maneuverable, capable of near-zero airspeed at high angles of attack without stalling, and dynamic aerobatics at low speeds. The Su-30MKI is powered by two Al-31FP afterburning turbofans. The TVC nozzles of the MKI are mounted 32 degrees outward to longitudinal engine axis (i.e. in the horizontal plane) and can be deflected ±15 degrees in the vertical plane. This produces a corkscrew effect, greatly enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft"

Vectoring in two dimensions -McDonnell Douglas F-15 STOL/MTD (experimental)

-Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor (pitch and roll)

-Chengdu J-20 (with WS-10B or AL-31FM2 engine, pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-30MKM (pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-30MKI (pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-30MKA (pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-30SM (pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-35S (pitch and roll)

-Sukhoi Su-57 (pitch and roll)

-McDonnell Douglas X-36 (yaw only)[23]

-Me 163 B experimentally used a rocket steering paddle for the yaw axis

It is thrust vectoring in one,two or three dimension(so in 1/2/3 axis)

• Maybe I am stupid, but I fail to see an answer to the question being asked: what is the difference one-plane and two-plane thrust vectoring? Commented Apr 1, 2020 at 11:12
• This answer appears to be a copy/paste from Wiki providing background on what thrust vectoring is. While informative, it does nothing to provide an answer to "What is 2-plane thrust vectoring?". The last, bolded sentence makes an attempt to actually answer the question, but it starts with "Maybe", which is hardly the fact-based, authoritative type answer we look for at SE. Commented Apr 1, 2020 at 11:55
• Also, any copy-paste should be block quoted so we can see what is (and isn't) original content. Commented Apr 1, 2020 at 17:12