First propeller use: A highly cambered airfoil would cause high pitching moments and twist the propeller blade. Of course you can pre-twist the blade so it will assume the correct shape in the desired operating point, but a propeller needs to work over a wide range of operating points, from take-off roll to high speed flight at altitude. In off-design points (i.e., most of the time) the propeller would have poor performance when compared with one which tolerates more diverse conditions.
Note that indeed thin, highly cambered airfoils are used on compressors and turbines in jet engines. Those are more stubby and enjoy much narrower variations in flow conditions, so the highly cambered, thin airfoil is indeed the best choice here.
Use on wings: Some aircraft do indeed use highly cambered airfoils. Those with low maximum speed like human powered or electric propulsion aircraft prefer those airfoils because they create the needed lift at the lowest possible speed, so the aircraft can fly with the limited installed power. As soon as the aircraft needs to cover a wider speed range, however, a lower camber is needed to keep drag low at high speed. This is similar to the use on propellers: A wider operating range requires to move away from the narrow optimum offered by those highly cambered airfoils.
Note that aircraft with a high wing loading use extensive and extensible high lift devices which turn their wings into thin, highly cambered structures for landing. Again, as soon as a lot of lift at low speed is needed, thin, highly cambered airfoils are the best choice. Adding slots between segments will make those work even better than a solid airfoil and allow to use more camber.