I think the answer is "no and yes". Bear with me... That sort of device as a stand alone heading sensor has never been used in an aircraft and if you parse the Wikipedia article carefully it becomes apparent why, under the paragraph titled "Errors".
A gyrocompass is subject to certain errors. These include steaming error, where rapid changes in course, speed and latitude cause deviation before the gyro can adjust itself. On most modern ships the GPS or other navigational aids feed data to the gyrocompass allowing a small computer to apply a correction. Alternatively a design based on a strapdown architecture (including a triad of fibre optic gyroscopes, ring laser gyroscopes or hemispherical resonator gyroscopes and a triad of accelerometers) will eliminate these errors, as they do not depend upon mechanical parts to determinate rate of rotation.
To work it requires a very slow moving and stable platform (like a ship). Anything approaching rapid motion, even by ship standards, let alone by aircraft standards, requires external help of some kind.
This rules out aircraft, and small boats for that matter I expect.
"Gyrocompass" in aviation has always referred to a directional gyro that is continuously slaved to an external magnetic north sensor. The traditional system has some form of directional gyro, either right in the instrument panel or built into an Attitude/Heading Reference System (AHRS) unit that drives the cockpit heading indication, with the actual magnetic field sensor in a remote location, usually out at the wing tip, called a Flux Valve, that provides a continuous magnetic north reference, to which the gyro is aligned.
When not slaved to the Flux Valve, an aircraft gyrocompass becomes just a directional gyro, which must be set manually and corrected for precession manually (on an AHRS system you will have a MAG/DG switch that allows you to select slaved or unslaved indications - in the high arctic where compass indications are useless, you have to operate in DG mode).
Now, I said "stand alone" for a reason. Inertial Reference Systems (or Inertial Navigation) used for aircraft navigation do use this phenomenon for their initialization alignment process. IRS initialization/alignment is done normally on the ground with the aircraft stationary, but can also be done in flight if heading is held steady during the alignment. The system is told where the aircraft is geographically, by entering lat/long or by GPS/FMS input if equipped, and the IRS senses precession from the earth's rotation to figure out what direction the airplane is pointed relative to true north (because it can sense the west-east axis of the earth's movement and knows the airplane longitudinal axis relative to that). This is how IRS systems get their directional starting point, from which future indications are derived from inertial changes from the starting point. If inertial errors build up in the system (you get left right IRS position comparator errors), the system has to be aligned again (which is why there is usually a procedure to do an "IRS Align" in flight where you fly a constant heading, speed and altitude for several minutes while the IRS does its thing).
So the answer is, yes, but limited to IRS systems when starting up, and no as a stand-alone heading device.