Yes, the Su-34 does technically include a food ration warmer, a "sanitary container", and some room that allows for sleeping.
However, all three are much less impressive than the terms might suggest:
- The food ration warmer is not a microwave. It's just a small can heater:
There is also some dedicated room for extra cans.
- The "sleeping room" is just a bit of room where one could fit a sleeping sack.
One can lay down their head and torso on the entry hatch and fit their legs between the seats. This may come in handy for really long missions, likely with in-air refueling. This is more of a side effect of having an entry ladder and a hatch than a deliberate amenity.
- The "toilet", or "sanitary can" as it's called, is exactly as illustrated in your question. Its interface technically supports both methods, but there's no record or hint of anyone ever using any but the first.
The reason for these is that the Su-34 is meant to be a long-range bomber with enough air-to-air capability to fly unescorted. So, even though based on a modified fighter platform, it was fitted with minimal amenities. However, these amenities are more of a "tick the box" type.
P.S. To correct some premises, ~8,000 kg is the payload limit for most of the Su-27 family, but not the -34. The Su-34 is significantly above that, with a maximum payload of 10,400 kg with maximum fuel or 12,500 kg with reduced fuel. In practical usage, it's an attack aircraft/bomber that can defend itself and operate against extensive air defenses.
To have an idea of where such a concept comes from, look at the Tu-22M. While a strategic bomber by role, it's rated up to Mach 2 and 2.5 g, has basic defensive armament, and is meant to engage aircraft carriers. So the VVS idea of a bomber from the 1970s on has been less of a bomb truck and more of an enlarged fighter with a large payload of guided munitions.
The Su-34 is a further development towards a fighter-like bomber direction. It's a heavy fighter platform with added wing area, range and payload to match older bombers. To narrow down its role, consider the F/A-18 for a comparison as an exemplary fighter-bomber that you'd see deployed on A2A missions as easily as A2G. The Su-34, OTOH, is more of a fighter-based bomber that doesn't need a fighter escort, but complements the base models for A2G and leaves A2A missions to Su-30/Su-35 variants.
P.P.S. I've taken the liberty of editing out your 2nd image, as it's from a space station.