Recently, when flying (as a passenger of a regular flight) from Stockholm/Arlanda, there was quite a long bus ride from the gate to the aircraft, because the latter was "short parked", according to the announcements at the gate. What does "short parked" mean? "Faraway parked" would have made more sense from a passenger point of view.
"short parking" seems to be an informal European term for "short-term parking". So it's referring to the time a vehicle is parked, not the distance.
If I heard it about the location of an airliner, I'd think they meant that the gate areas were full and it had to be put somewhere temporary (and inconvenient) this time.
The term is rarely used, at least that I am familiar with in the US, but the times I have heard it used, the aircraft is parked on a ramp, away from the terminal building. This has always been close to a main taxiway, and away from the pushoff movement area around the terminal building.
The line crew have called it short parked, because the taxi is substantially reduced. The aircraft might be 3000 feet from the terminal building.
This has been observed more frequently with charter and special flights, even though the carriers are normal 121 operators. Sometimes the aircraft parked in this area are military transports which are too large or too heavy for the FBO ramps.