Yes, especially if the explosion or breakup occurred at altitude. In this case the pieces of the plane will be broadly distributed across the terrain and pieces with any aerodynamic qualities (big, flat chunks) will fall a significant distance from dense pieces of machinery (engines, pumps, motors).
For example, an RV-type plane flying out of an airport not far from my home crashed into an open field; one of its wings came to earth far from the crater, indicating that the wing came off not during the impact but while the plane was still in the air.
Furthermore, pieces of the shattered bubble canopy were found in a cluster far from the crater rather than inside the cockpit, where they would be if the canopy shattered on impact. This allowed the investigators to conclude that the wing spar folded at its join with the fuselage, flipped up and struck the canopy, smashing it to pieces and then separated from the fuselage while the plane was a thousand feet or so above the ground.
Explosions leave blast soot on the pieces of the plane and impact damage from pieces of shrapnel thrown by the exploding munition. A missile strike on an engine will blow it free of the wing at altitude and a bomb in the fuselage will show localized blast soot and tearing patterns in the fuselage structure which can be deduced from the wreckage with a lot of hard work.