What are design dynamics that give the rocket engine higher thrust than an air breathing jet engine of similar size in comparison to a turbo jet engine, turbo fan engine, high by pass turbo fan engine, Scram jet or ram jet. Is it impossible to improve any of these engines to match the performance of the rocket in terms of thrust
It is simply the rate at which fuel can be burned. For instance, the Saturn V's first stage carried 1.37 million kg of liquid oxygen (along with the kerosene fuel), which it burned in about 165 seconds. Imagine the size of the jet intake you'd need for a comparable amount of air.