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"The 737 design enhancements allow operators to fly increased payload in and out of airports with runways less than 5,000 feet long. The design enhancements include a two-position tail skid that enables reduced approach speeds, sealed leading-edge slats that provide increased lift during takeoff, and increased flight spoiler deflection on the ground that improves takeoff and landing performance"

Source: https://boeing.mediaroom.com/2006-07-31-Boeing-Delivers-First-737-with-Enhanced-Short-Runway-Package-to-GOL

What are the sealed leading-edge slats in B737 short field performance, and how are they different from the normal leading slats in typical B737?

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A "sealed" slat has no slot between it and the main wing. According to b737.org.uk, sealing flaps allows for more lift at a lower AOA (Angle of Attack).

Reference from Flightglobal.com "Short Field 737 goes into flight test" states that sealing of up to 25 degrees of slats will be available for take-off, an improvement from 1 and 5 degrees. Slots (not sealed) are to be used for landings.

This information indicates "sealing" creates a large single undercambered surface, which would have a lift to drag (less drag) profile more suited for take-off and climb out than the slotted settings.

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