Will there be a different light pattern (like turning on/off different exterior lights) between taxi in and taxi out, and between takeoff and landing?
The use of beacon, strobe and navigation lights is already covered in this question: When to use beacon, anti-collision, strobe, logo, and navigation lights?
Taxi: Additionally to the navigation and beacon lights, the pilots always turn on the taxi lights during taxi. This is not only to see the taxiway in the dark, but also to signal other aircraft and ground vehicles that this aircraft is currently moving or about to start moving. The use of runway turn-off lights depends on the visibility. In the dark, they are typically turned on, but there is no need for them during daylight. The details may be airline specific as well. There is no difference between taxi out and in.
Takeoff and Landing: In general, all aircraft external lights should be turned on whenever an aircraft is on a runway. This is to increase visibility to other aircraft. There is one exception to this rule: the landing lights are typically only turned on when takeoff clearance has been received (meaning they are left off when receiving a line up and wait clearance). Again, there is no difference between the takeoff and landing roll. Some airlines use the taxi light switch as a reminder for being cleared to land during approach, but it will be on when landing.