The EASA definition goes as follows: ‘Aeroplane’ means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. ‘Aircraft’ means a machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

To me a TMG could go under that definition but not sure though... Basically I'd like to know whether the 15 hours that are needed to go from LAPL(a) -> PPL(a) can be done on TMG https://www.caa.co.uk/General-aviation/Pilot-licences/EASA-requirements/PPL-SPL-BPL/PPL-(A)-requirements/

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    $\begingroup$ Wow that's a weird definition of "aircraft". I guess they are trying to say "out of ground effect". But I think you could make a case that the earth's surface IS playing some role in supporting an aircraft, helicopter, or balloon, even if flying at high altitude. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 1, 2019 at 20:31
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    $\begingroup$ @quiteFlyer the definition of aircraft is such that wing-in-ground effect craft and hovercraft are excluded, but balloons, aeroplanes, gliders, helicopters etc are included. The earth's surface may be playing some role at low level flight, but it does not have to. $\endgroup$
    – DeltaLima
    Commented Sep 30, 2022 at 9:27

2 Answers 2


To my understanding of Part-FCL, yes. While aeroplanes is a broad term used in the FCL, they use it in some cases to include both, SEP and TMG, e.g.

FCL.105.A LAPL(A) —Privileges and conditions (a) The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for aeroplanes are to act as PIC on single-engine piston aeroplanes-land or TMG with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2 000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board of the aircraft.

and hence

FCL.210.A (b) Specific requirements for applicants holding an LAPL(A). Applicants for a PPL(A) holding an LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 15 hours of flight time on aeroplanes after the issue of the LAPL(A), of which at least 10 shall be flight instruction completed in a training course at an ATO. This training course shall include at least 4 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 2 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

Source: https://www.easa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/dfu/Part-FCL.pdf


From an Easa Certification point of view, motorgliders, motor assisted (turbo) gliders and regular gliders are all certificated(nowadays) under CS 22, while light aircraft are certification under 23.. CS is Certification Standard , equivalent to FARs .


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