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I mean a Light aircraft, in Germany and a town like Heidelberg. And I mean not landing, of course, but overflying.

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  • $\begingroup$ In the USA, the FAA rules require roughly 300 meters above the highest obstacle that is within 600 meters horizontally. (1000 feet above an obstacle within 2000 feet) $\endgroup$ – abelenky Jul 30 at 19:51
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In Europe this is regulated by SERA.5005 Visual flight rules (source, emphasis mine):

(f) Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the competent authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:

(1) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft;

(2) elsewhere than as specified in (1), at a height less than 150 m (500 ft) above the ground or water, or 150 m (500 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 150 m (500 ft) from the aircraft.

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EASA has published an easy access version of the Standardised European Rules of the Air (SERA) here.

To answer your question, see: SERA.5005(f) Visual flight rules (presuming you are asking about VFR flights):

(f) Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the competent authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:

(1) over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft;

Notice also SERA.3105 Minimum heights:

Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the competent authority, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open- air assembly of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. The minimum heights for VFR flights shall be those specified in SERA.5005(f) and minimum levels for IFR flights shall be those specified in SERA.5015(b).

... and GM1 SERA.3105 Minimum heights:

In cases where it is considered that the minimum heights specified in SERA.5005 and SERA.5015 are not sufficient, the competent authority may establish appropriate structures, such as controlled, restricted or prohibited airspace, and define specific conditions through national arrangements. In all cases, the related Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) and charts should be made easy to comprehend for airspace users.

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