The most simple propeller thrust equations replace the propeller with an abstract disk in which the flow is accelerated. How this disk is composed in detail does not matter. However, more elaborate codes which also model the helical wake of each blade will use blade count specific algorithms.
So the answer is yes, there are algorithms which account for the number of blades, but they are more complex than a single equation.
This answer shows how the number of blades of the propeller for the Supermarine Spitfire grew with engine performance, and this answer sheds light on the number of blades of helicopter rotors.