Yes, the removal of payload will result in a measurable reduction in emissions.
First, I have to correct some math: the engines don't run at 150 kN in cruise - that would indicate a L/D ratio of only 4-5, since a typical A320 weighs around 60 tons mid-flight (give or take 10). Fuel consumption is roughly proportional to weight, so 30 kg out of roughly 60,000 kg is a 0.05% reduction, not a 0.00012% one.
As to whether one would be able to move the throttle down exactly 0.05% to benefit from the reduced weight and leave everything else equal, no, not even the autothrottle is so precise.
But that doesn't mean fuel consumption is unaffected: the balance of an aircraft's weight, lift, drag and thrust always affects its energy. At the exact same throttle setting, the aircraft will climb a fraction of a percent faster, and so finish its climb and go to lower fuel burn at cruise a few seconds sooner. In cruise, maintaining the same flight level, it can spend a minute or two at a bit lower throttle, or trimmed a bit down, which will make it arrive a few seconds sooner.
This is fundamental conservation of energy: if less of it is expended in drag, then either the engines have to work less, or the aircraft will climb or accelerate. This happens all the time - an airliner in level flight doesn't stay in perfect equilibrium throughout, but corrects for energy changes every once in a while. Even if it doesn't change how much fuel is pumped into the tanks that particular day, the effect is cumulative across all sources and persistent through random variations.
Overall the effect of weight on fuel burn is proportionate. Depending on the distance, everything aboard an aircraft can consume 10% to 50% of its weight in fuel each flight. A very rough ballpark is that, over the life of an A320, each pound of operating empty weight will cost an extra ton of fuel.
To be more specific, given the A320's fuel burn of roughly ~2,500 kg/hour, adding the trolley requires an extra 1.25 kg of fuel per hour it's in the air. For a 4-hour flight, that's an extra 5 kg of fuel. Over the 60,000 flight-hours an A320 will serve in total, that's 72,000 kg of fuel. So behind that trolley is 3 large tank trucks' worth of fuel to keep it in the air, and ~225,000 kg of CO2 emissions.
As an aside, in-flight sales of random junk really serve the airline, not the passengers. The profit margin on these items can be up to 100 times the tiny profit margin on economy tickets themselves. With airports packed full of duty-free shops, there's no shortage of shopping opportunities on an air trip. Cramped and burning fuel for every item on board, whether it sells or not, aircraft don't make for a very efficient or practical storefront.
Airlines only make up for this inefficiency by exploiting their cabin crews as free salesmen. Of course, airlines' environmental consciousness tends to correlate strongly with the price of jet fuel, so once sales profit no longer covers the extra burn, it's time to go green.