Spoilers are called spoilers, because they work by spoiling lift.
To slow the aircraft, or make it descend faster, it needs to dissipate the energy and that means increase drag. Disrupting the airflow over the wing creates a lot of drag due to stagnation behind the spoilers, and additional induced drag as the lift distribution is pushed further from optimal. After landing disrupting lift also puts more weight on the wheels, which makes the brakes more effective.
The price for it is, however, is that the aircraft flies at higher angle of attack to compensate for the lift reduction, and that means closer to stall. That means the aircraft must not fly as slow to maintain the safety margin, and shouldn't use spoilers at low altitude where there would not be enough height to recover in case of stall.
Gliders to normally use spoilers all the way to landing. Without engine, it is their only way to regulate the rate of losing energy. However a light slow glider can afford flying close to stall, because they can be recovered very quickly after retracting the spoilers. Their spoilers also tend to be relatively small, so they don't allow that steep approaches.
Airliners are another matter though. They have a lot of inertia, which makes them respond to control input rather slowly. Combined with their much higher speed it makes stall due to spoilers left out a bit too long a much bigger problem. Their spoilers are also larger as their primary functions are dumping lift on the ground and emergency descent, which is normally flown at maximum allowable speed.
As mentioned by @user71659, there are some aircraft that do use spoilers for steep approach, e.g. A318. But A318 has unusually low stall speed as it uses the same wings as A320 that are large for its weight, and its flight control computer is programmed to retract the spoilers (and spool up the engines) if it gets too close to stall.
It would be also possible to have the spoiler extend only a little bit, or only some of them, for steeper approaches. However, steep approaches are rare, so they are not worth the additional complexity in the control system for the purpose for most aircraft manufacturers and airlines.