The A320 and 737 have very different flight control architectures.
The 737 has physical cables that transmit pilot (or autopilot) input directly to the hydraulic actuators. This was common in the 1960's when the airplane was first designed. This means that the airplane handling comes down to the aerodynamics and the pilot input.
The 737 MAX presented an issue when it was found that certain situations approaching stall could cause the airplane to pitch up, exacerbating the stall, rather than naturally pitching down and recovering as expected. This was due to the larger engine nacelles, which are located ahead of the center of gravity. An aerodynamic change would have taken lots of time and money and had its own drawbacks. Instead, Boeing created MCAS. This applies trim to help to pitch the airplane down when it reaches high angles of attack.
The A320, on the other hand, was designed as a fly-by-wire aircraft. This means that a computer is using sensor inputs to control the airplane all the time, and pilot or autopilot inputs only provide a guide to that computer control.
Fly-by-wire allows some helpful safety features, such as not allowing the airplane to exceed the design envelope, including stall. This means that any A320 in normal conditions will allow the airplane to reach a maximum angle of attack and no higher. Any aerodynamic differences such as a different fuselage length, larger engines, etc, are countered by the flight computer. Other than some possible fine tuning of the control laws of the fly-by-wire system, the A320 neo would not need any special new system to control angle of attack.