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This in-flight photo provides a look into the pre-FMS era (also pre-INS), i.e., not having a programmable route.

How was the navigation managed back then? (Question limited to 2-crew jetliners, or jetliners that lacked a navigator position.)

What I'm interested in the division of crew duties, methodology of switching to stations (given the high ground speed of jet-liners), the expected/required accuracy, the use of reminders if any, etc. Basically, how it was managed.

I'm not asking how to navigate using VOR, NDB, etc., only the operational aspect.

Dissecting the photo above:

  1. Lack of FMS.
  2. Autopilot flying a heading select (heading 172, most probably not ATC issued) in cruise (PERF CRZ).
  3. Laid-back accuracy (not a bad thing).
    • For example, a VOR/LOC mode was available but wasn't used.
  4. NAV 1 radio selector.
  5. NAV 2 radio selector (opposite side).
  6. That's not an FMS, that's a PMS (Performance Management System) for flying the optimum vertical profile.

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