When I fly, I like to see the airport when I take off and land. Is there a way I can know, in advance, which runway the plane is likely to depart/arrive from so I know which side of the plane to sit in?
No. As far as is reasonably practical, planes land and take off into the wind so the runways that are in use will depend on weather conditions at the time of the flight, as well as traffic and so on.
These things probably won't be known at the time when you're picking your seat.
Since you asked about "likely", then it really depends on the airport.
Some airports have prevailing winds that are quite consistent. As an example, if you were to fly a domestic flight out of SFO between May and October, you've probably got close to a 90% chance that you'll depart on 1L or 1R, with most of the airport on your left. SJC is similar.
The weather at many other airports is variable enough that this isn't as likely to work.