Turning through 90°, 180°, 270° & 360°, the error is different. I can understand what is turning error and pitch error individually.

But why turning through different degree, the resulting error is different?

Turning error in air driven Artificial Horizon


1 Answer 1


Rapidly becoming a nonfactor as electronic systems replace vacuum driven gyros:


How It Works: Attitude and Heading Reference System

Attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS) have been providing heading and attitude information with greater accuracy and reliability than traditional mechanical gyros for years now. But how do these solid-state systems deliver this information, and how do they do so using increasingly smaller and lighter equipment?

Micro Electronics

An AHRS’s key features include ­micro-electronic mechanical gyros, ­accelerometers and a magnetometer or flux valve. The micro-electronic mechanical gyros are responsible for capturing motion data as an aircraft moves about all three axes. They do this by ­using vibrating components. As an aircraft changes direction, these vibrations deviate, and these deviations can be measured and used to calculate directional change data.

Gyro Drift

In order to account for gyro drift, which can produce erroneous data, an AHRS must also rely on accelerometers as well as a magnetometer or flux valve. The former uses gravity to serve as both an initial attitude reference as well as an inflight reference, whereas the latter uses Earth’s magnetic field to provide heading information.

The AHRS aggregates all the information from these different components and conducts complex algorithms and calculations to provide highly reliable attitude and heading data.

Side Note: Previously out of reach for private aircraft owners due to high costs, AHRS prices dropped remarkably as the result of the use and advancement of AHRS technology in the automotive industry. An AHRS today can be as small as a coin.

  • $\begingroup$ I just saw this one yesterday wingbug.com Mounts on the wing and Wifis the flight attitude info to your iPad/iPhone. I would consider this as as a backup to my IFR Certified panel mounted system. Would also be a great backup for vacuum system equipped planes. $\endgroup$
    – CrossRoads
    Commented Jan 7, 2019 at 12:14
  • $\begingroup$ This may be useful information, but it doesn't answer the question at all. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 7, 2019 at 17:28
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, well too long for a comment, so to whomever downvoted it .... $\endgroup$
    – CrossRoads
    Commented Jan 7, 2019 at 19:00
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Maybe you should post a new question and post this as an answer to that question? That's a good way to share information that isn't an answer to an existing question; I've done it a few times. $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 7, 2019 at 19:29

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .