I am doing research and looking for a regulation (from FAA, Transport Canada, ICAO or anywhere else) that explicitly states that a type certificate is required for aeronautical products (aircraft, aircraft engines, aircraft propellors). I have looked around on google and at the CARs and FARs but haven't found it yet.

Can anyone help me find a specific reference to this regulation?


1 Answer 1


I guess I was thinking about it the wrong way. I was hoping for a single regulation to cover it. These sections of the FAR seem to be enough to say that type certificates are required for aeronautical products.

14 CFR §21.45 states the privileges bestowed to type certificate holders including the ability to obtain airworthiness certificates for aircraft, install engines and propellers, obtain production approval or replacement part approval.

14 CFR §21.6 states the need for a type certificate in order to manufacture new aeronautical products

14 CFR §21.9 states replacement and modification parts need to be produced under type certificate

14 CFR §21.132 states that a type certificate is necessary in order to be eligible for a production certificate.

14 CFR §21.183 states that in order to get an airworthiness certificate the aircraft must conform to its type design.

There are probably more examples in other sections. Any other answers appreciated.

  • $\begingroup$ And of course, at the component and parts level, parts have to meet a Technical Standards Order (TSO) and someone making the parts has to be granted Part Manufacturing Authority (PMA) to be able to ship them to the manufacturer (unless the manufacturer does its own conformity inspection) or to an airline. $\endgroup$
    – John K
    Jan 7, 2019 at 2:33
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @JohnK TSO is entirely optional. It does however, provide both design and manufacturing approval. But the TSO part must also be included in the aircraft TC (or an STC) for it to be used on the aircraft. If the part's design approval is the TC, then a PMA is required to manufacture it (the design belongs to the aircraft manufacturer) and it can only be sold for use on that particular a/c model. A TSO part's design belongs to the TSO holder. They can sell it to any aircraft manufacturer that wants to use it (subject to them certifying it as part of their TC). $\endgroup$
    – Gerry
    Jan 7, 2019 at 12:47

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