# How are the takeoff V speeds calculated? [duplicate]

What is the actual formula for calculating the takeoff V speeds of an aircraft with any configuration? Specifically, I mean V1, Vr and V2

I know there are many factors, but what are they specifically and what operations are used on them in an overall formula?

• Im sorry. I was acting as if everyone knew what I meant :/. I meant to be speaking of the most commonly known -- that is "V1" "VR" and "V2". I have edited my question accordingly. – Xander bonbon beans Dec 1 '18 at 0:35
• See the following answer: How is minimum runway length related to V1?. They don't actually use a formula to determine them, they determine them through actual flight testing (with some limits specified in the certification rules). While that answer doesn't address V2, it goes in to detail on the others and contains links to the regulations. – Lnafziger Dec 2 '18 at 23:56