Not quite to the same extent you have in mind, but when you are able to have a staggered set of runways, they will try to arrange it so that the "landing" ones have the roll out area near the terminal, and the "takeoff" ones have the threshold near the terminal.
Let's take BWI as an example. In an south/east flow (takeoffs and landing heading south/east), all traffic will take off on 15R, right next to the NW end of the terminal. All traffic will land on 10, with the exit from the rollout a little bit after the runways cross.
Or IAD, in a North flow, most landings will happen on 1R and takeoffs on 1C.
NAS (naval air station) Lemoore is another sort of example of this - kind of a little split because of the structure of the ramp, but if it was one terminal, in a NW flow you'd have all takeoffs on the N runway and all landings on the S runway.
Put another way, if you have a 9000 foot runway, in your scheme you'd need to make 1 18000 foot runway, but it is at least twice as efficient to have 2x9000 ones, even if it increases the taxi time, and some of that can be mitigated by the staggering above.