If you have an aircraft (training flight) that is doing practice instrument approaches and ATC is notified that they will fly the approach and then go missed, what is the correct phraseology for the tower? "Cleared to land" or "cleared missed approach"? Where can I find this information in a document?
If you want to go missed on a practice instrument approach rather than land, the controller will clear you for a "low approach".
See here for more on the legality of low approaches.
At a large airport, you would not be able to do this. However, at smaller airports, especially those that are geared towards training, they are very welcoming of this.
When talking to the tower, you can be as formal as you like, or at the smaller, training airports, fairly casual.
"XXX Tower, Tail Number, Location, would like to make a practice ILS approach on runway 10, and depart west/stay in pattern."
The tower would then clear you for a "practice ILS approach". I've heard practice approach used as the accepted terminology before, and I don't think "missed approach" would work, as you can't miss what you never intended to hit!
Just tell them what you want to do. Don't be afraid of using the radio. Your phrasing and stuff will get better as you do it more. Remember, who you are, where you are, what you want to do. For example:
ZZZ Tower, Nxxxxx, 10 miles northeast at 3,500, for the ILS approach to runway 12, then go Missed and (try another approach, depart to the east, etc).
Nxxxxx, ZZZ Tower, cleared for Approach via some approach fix, on the Miss proceed as requested (or other direction provided if they need you out of the way for other traffic for example, such as fly the published hold). Notify when at Outer Marker.
ZZZ Tower, (read back the clearance given), Nxxxxx.
Seems you are all wrong. Here is the information you requested that was copied&pasted from the FAA Pilot & Controller Glossary.
CLEARED FOR THE OPTION — ATC authorization for an aircraft to make a touch and go, low approach, missed approach, stop and go, or full-stop landing at the discretion of the pilot. It is normally used in training so that an instructor can evaluate a student's performance under changing situations.