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This question already has an answer here:

I've always wanted to ask a pilot what a CRM was. Of course, I didn't really get lots of chances to ask pilots, no I thought of just asking here. What is a CRM and what does it stand for?

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marked as duplicate by kevin, Ralph J, Ron Beyer, Dave, Sanchises Jul 23 '18 at 5:46

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to aviation.SE! Can you give us some more details so that we know exactly what you're asking about? For example, do you have a document or reference that you're trying to understand? This question might be related, for example? $\endgroup$ – Pondlife Jul 23 '18 at 2:19
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Crew Resource Management started out in the 70s as an attempt to eliminate human error but over time it's undergone a number of iterations and today the concepts have accepted reality and assume errors can't be eliminated, only mitigated.

Modern CRM tries to mitigate errors by attempting to require multiple errors to stack up in an improbable way before things become dangerous (called the "swiss cheese" approach, as in mutiple layers of swiss cheese where a single hole is unlikely to line up). It also has added personality factors, human interaction factors, and leadership factors to the mix.

In practical terms, this means that, for example, captains are expected to act as leaders and not bosses. The FO is not just a gear puller and is encouraged to participate in assessment, planning and decision making. Copilots are expected to speak up when in doubt about something. Both crew members are expected to make sure that each is aware of the other's actions, and planned future actions, at all times. Crew members cross check each other's actions continuously. Crew members learn standard phraseology for key actions and are expected to stick to it to reduce confusion. Crew members are expected to follow standard operating procedures and not invent their own ways of doing things.

ATC gives an altitude clearance change? Pilot monitoring and talking to ATC dials the autopilot to the new altitude, and calls it out something like "Flight Level 350 set". Pilot flying confirms the correct altitude is set and calls out "350 checks". You generally announce everything you do as you do it and make sure your partner is aware (usually by responding "check"). It should just flow. One major bonus is the standardization makes it possible for crews to smoothly interact without flying together for a period of time first.

A cockpit with good CRM will have a well-oiled machine aspect to it with the pilot and copilot well integrated mentally. The capt and FO cooperate on planning and decision making, notwithstanding the fact that it's the captain's final call. They will look like they've been flying together for weeks when they've actually just met that morning.

I would say that the two biggest factors in the amazing safety record of airline transport in the last 30 years, from a crew performance standpoint, is the success of CRM, and the advent of the 2D moving map presentation when the glass cockpit came along, which massively improved situational awareness by eliminating the need to generate a mental picture of a navigation situation like in the steam gauge era.

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    $\begingroup$ Two recent and well-known incidents that have been lauded for outstanding CRM were UA 1549 (the "Miracle on the Hudson") and Quantas 32. In the former case, Capt. Sullenberger was well versed in CRM, having actually developed and taught some of the very first courses at his airline in the 1980s. In the latter case, there was an additional relief pilot, as well as a check captain and a captain training to be a check captain in the cockpit, giving a total of 5 pilots in the cockpit at the time of the accident, which could have led to confusion but was actually used as an asset. $\endgroup$ – Jörg W Mittag Jul 23 '18 at 11:29