The main problem with installing bigger engines is that they are heavier. And because you need to lift the engine weight too, the thrust/weight ratio grows slower than the installed thrust. The result significantly reduced payload fraction and payload fraction is the major factor in efficiency.
Now fighters normally do have thrust/weight around 1, but they are basically aerodynamic shells wrapped around the engines and some fuel tanks and almost nothing else. Their payload is too small compared to transport aircraft to be practical.
Now vertical take-off is occasionally useful in civilian operations, but with all the airports already built not as often. For the cases where it is we have the rotorcraft and the AugustaWestland AW609 tiltrotor.
Unlike jets, the large rotors have much lower induced power, so they can produce much more static thrust with the same power and thus support hover with reasonably small engines. The price is that their thrust decreases faster with speed, so the top speed is lower.