If you allow to store the gas in liquefied form, the answer is a cautious Yes. But do not expect more than very brief flights.
Not compressed, but liquefied gas was used in the first attempts at powered flight. Before internal combustion engines became light and fast enough for use in aircraft, carbonic acid engines were employed by several pioneers.
Otto Lilienthal, who built and flew the first man-carrying gliders, added carbonic acid engines of his own design to several of them. They drove flapping wingtips which, according to his own description, clearly helped in stretching the glide, but were not powerful enough for sustained flight.
Lilienthal glider with flapping wingtips (picture source; a picture of Lilienthal's engine can also be found on that page)
In 1905, the Romanian engineer Trajan Vuja used a carbonic acid engine to fly his high-wing monoplane. It was powered by a 25 hp modified Serpollet engine which drove a tractor propeller. It was capable of short hops only, even though Wikipedia reports that
The fuel supply was enough for a running time of about five minutes at full power
In its "ten years ago" section, the October 19, 1916, issue of Flight International described the power plant of the Vuja machine as:
A peculiarity of the arrangement is that the motor is driven by liquid carbonic acid, a method of obtaining power which has not hitherto been conspicuous for its lightness.