Your real question here should not be about a specific speed but about a specific thrust level. (see the comments)
Every engine will have 2 ratings a takeoff thrust rating and a maximum continuous thrust rating.
Takeoff thrust is self-explanatory. That's the level at which you can takeoff. The engine will only be rated for a few minutes continuously at takeoff thrust. After that time, you are supposed to reduce thrust.
Maximum continuous thrust (aka "max con" or MCT) is the thrust level at which the engine manufacturer will certify that you can operate for any length of time with no significant impact to the engine. Max con will be above cruise but below takeoff. For example, if one engine fails on a two engine plane, you'll need to run the other engine higher than a normal cruise thrust. Max con is the level that you will want to run at.
In other words, you can go to max con forever, but you can only go above max con (up to takeoff) for X minutes (where X is 5 or, depending on the engine)
So, what happens if you exceed max con thrust for more than X minutes? If you go a little bit past max con for a few seconds, probably nothing happens. If you go well past max con for several minutes, you can shorten the service life of the engine. i.e. you might have to take the engine off wing and overhaul it a bit sooner than you otherwise would have. The higher you go and the longer you sit there, the worse it will be. And if you go to full throttle for an extended period of time (hours), then you could total the engine.
One of the driving factors of the engine's life is the high pressure turbine. Problems there are low cycle fatigue, creep, and oxidation. All of these are made worse when the turbine gets hot. And the more thrust you are making, the hotter it will get. And the longer you sit at high power, the hotter it will get.