One might consider reading books about aviation weather. Weather Flying by Robert Buck is timeless, and is good for VFR and IFR flight. All my primary and instrument students read it. I cannot remember any student complaining about having assigned reading in that book.
One way is to start by looking at the PROG charts about two days in advance and getting an idea as to what will be driving the WX for my intended flight(s). Then less than 24 hours before, one can start looking at TAFs. Before the evolution of phone WX apps, I used to record the TAFs for my route on a file card. That way the trends were visible. Hours before the flight, the METARs were recorded.
This way one has access to the trend in the WX. If the TAFs remain consistent and the METARs are in line with the TAFs, then at least there is a stable forecast. If the METARs are consistently getting worse than the TAFs, then the forecast is less stable and in an undesirable way.
In addition to watching the forecasts and how they are realized in observations for your intended route and nearby stations, there are other metrics. If one is a student pilot, doing solo pattern work, the instability of the air will influence the gusts and variability in the wind direction. Sailplane students may look at lift indices, such as K or LI, which are measures of air stability. Most airplane student pilots will look at gusts of surface winds, but often the gust reporting and forecasting only occurs after the gusts become a factor for students.
Looking at the winds aloft forecast will help one appreciate shear and instability at lower levels. Certainly if there is allot of differences at lower altitudes at or near where one is operating, a slight change against the forecast could yield difficult surface conditions.
Finally, there is a regional factor. Much of my instruction has been in the vicinity of the great lakes, and lake effect/enhancement can create localized changes, which are often not reflected in forecasts, but can be predicted by regional knowledge. Your instructor should help out here. In the US, areas with unique WX will often have seminars and other talks, where the local effects are discussed. This is more common in coastal, mountainous and similar areas (Great Lakes included).
One's friend is an understanding of the theory, knowledge of the specifics of the reporting products, and the regional tendencies. Integrating those aspects together will reduce your risk, not only of serious WX situations, but also help you better understand your likelihood of a successful flight or a wasted trip to the airport.