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Just out of curiosity on a hot weather with temperature increases what happens to the air molecules and aircraft during landing and takeoff?

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Aviation.SE. I'm sorry, but I think this is either a bit too broad (not to mention unclear what you really want to know). Could you please narrow the question down? As it is now it would require several books to answer, and thus it is not a good fit for this site. $\endgroup$ – Federico Nov 12 '17 at 17:09
  • $\begingroup$ When temperature increases, air becomes less dense. Lift depends on air density, in hot weather, difference is compensated by a higher speed or a higher angle of attack, or a combination, up to allowed limits. Or the crew may decide to decrease mass (less passengers, less cargo) to need less lift. $\endgroup$ – mins Nov 12 '17 at 17:18
  • $\begingroup$ @Nick: it might be that your question is so broad because you might not really have narrowed the scope of your question down yourself. So why don't you add some bullets on what specifics you are most interested in. And from there you can start your journey. $\endgroup$ – rul30 Nov 12 '17 at 17:24
  • $\begingroup$ @rul30 what i meant to say is in general what effect does air molecules have for landing and takeoff in this case. $\endgroup$ – Nick Nov 14 '17 at 16:24
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If all else is equal, an increase in temperature will result in a decrease in density of air molecules. To fly, a wing leverages these molecules, so the aircraft will need to fly faster to generate the same lift. Therefore the takeoff and landing distances are increased.

Engine performance is also impacted. Most engines outside of NASA breathe air and so perform better when that air is dense. Jet engines also have a maximum exhaust gas temperature they can withstand, and in very hot temperatures the amount of thrust they produce needs to be lowered so as to not exceed that value. This is the basic premise of how Airbus ‘assumed temperature’ works, where the pilots tell the engine that the temperature is hotter than it actually is, so the FADEC automatically caps the thrust.

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