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This question already has an answer here:

I don't get the point of building a stopway. If you have the space to build a stopway, you could just extend the length of the runway.

Why are stopways necessary?

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marked as duplicate by TomMcW, SMS von der Tann, fooot, mins, Jan Hudec Oct 30 '17 at 21:02

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    $\begingroup$ I sometimes wish we lived on a flat earth where the landscape extends to infinity and real estate would be cheaper. $\endgroup$ – user3528438 Oct 30 '17 at 14:59
  • $\begingroup$ The question is answered in detail here $\endgroup$ – TomMcW Oct 30 '17 at 15:52
  • $\begingroup$ @user3528438 Flat Earth is not required to build very long, straight roads. Proof: most highways in non-mountainous parts of the American West. Of course, the road will still follow the curvature of the Earth rather than being literally straight in all three dimensions, but that's not problematic (roads do this anyway, it just isn't very noticeable because the curvature itself isn't very noticeable from the surface.) $\endgroup$ – reirab Oct 30 '17 at 19:59
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Overrun areas are almost always filled with some form of loose material... sand, for example... that will slow a plane down with extra drag on the landing gear. The idea is that if a plane has reached the end of the runway, it's already in trouble and is probably having problems braking.

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  • $\begingroup$ Ah that already makes more sense. My textbook isn't very clear. $\endgroup$ – user6245072 Oct 30 '17 at 15:23
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Regardless of how long a runway is built, a stopway is needed for other purposes. Stopways (also known as blast pads or overrun areas) is often not as strong as runways, so that airplane's tires have more friction and can slow down faster than runways. Also, the length of a runway does not include the length of stopway.

Why runways are not built longer? It is because real estate is real estate. It is expensive and is always on short supply. Also, if you find area around a runway which is not used, there could be rules for that region for open space.

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  • $\begingroup$ Also, even if you have plenty of real estate, runway construction is decidedly not free. $\endgroup$ – reirab Oct 30 '17 at 20:01

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