How is online (in-flight) and offline (between flights) health monitoring of large aircraft engines and other essential components done?

As far as I have been told, there are a lot of measured channels (at least for engines), but:

  1. what exactly is measured?

  2. How are the data evaluated during flight?

  3. How are the data evaluated on the ground (from long term point of view or after/before failure)?

EDIT: You can consider Boeing 747 or 787 as a large aircraft (to narrow down the question as requested).

  • $\begingroup$ Related: The overall picture of Flight Data Monitoring (FDM). Quick Access Recorder (QAR) and FDM on ATR. $\endgroup$ – mins Oct 16 '17 at 8:21
  • $\begingroup$ Asking what is measured is very broad as you're not limiting it to engines - there are so many parameters. $\endgroup$ – user1997744 Oct 16 '17 at 17:04
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @ATHIRAMOL.M.R Check your Caps-Key. $\endgroup$ – Noah Krasser Oct 16 '17 at 18:24
  • $\begingroup$ @user1997744 Fair point probably, I edit my question to make it more concrete. $\endgroup$ – matousc Oct 16 '17 at 18:56

Methods of recording data and what's monitored differ between manufacturers but speaking as a Rolls Royce employee, the engine I'm responsible for, the AE2100D3 on the Hercules, is done via downloads. The flight computer records many different channels during flights and ground runs which are downloaded daily, then trended and analyzed. RR HQ then flag any anomalys and send out data for customers to act on, i.e. vibration problems, reduced performance etc. Big engine such as Trents are monitored in real time whilst they fly which is really impressive.

  1. As regards to what exactly is measured, I could list lots of stuff but primarily it's broken down into vibration (all rotating components vibrate, and have allowable limits for this) and performance (referencing pressures and temperatures through the engine to give a performance margin or figure) Anything that either exceeds or drops below set limits raises a maintenance alert.
  2. Engine control units/FADECs constantly monitor all sensors, as do the crews, again anything that needs attention will trigger some sort of warning or information system
  3. Generally through trending and graphs, or in terms of component lifing, etc there will be a count.
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