Some previous generations military aircraft decelerate with a parachute to decrease landing distance:
Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir landing with a parachute (source)
It this something found on any civil aircraft today?
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Regarding the edit for today's planes: they went out of fashion for the civilian jets.
The weight saving makes sense for fighters which are range limited due to the high performance engines and the placement (and type) of the nozzle. The weight of a reverse system is better substituted with fuel or ordnance. The Saab 37 does have reverse though.
(Twitter) Norwegian F-35's will also have parachute brakes (related to the note on fighter generations).
Related and/or duplicate, you decide: Do any commercial airline models have a parachute at rear to help in landings? (Answers are more thorough and include gliders.)