Some early civilian jets had drogue parachutes such as the Caravelle and the Tupolev Tu-104.
While the reverse systems are heavier than the parachutes, they are more practical (no stowing and running after rogue parachutes).
Regarding the edit for today's planes: they went out of fashion for the civilian jets.
- For newly built jets, there aren't any as far as I know. Older jets that may still be airworthy, and military aircraft that may have been converted to civilian use, are not included in my assessment.
The weight saving makes sense for fighters which are range limited due to the high performance engines and the placement (and type) of the nozzle. The weight of a reverse system is better substituted with fuel or ordnance. The Saab 37 does have reverse though.
(Source) Parachute used for an attitude recovery system. It's not meant for decelerating though.
(Twitter) Norwegian F-35's will also have parachute brakes (related to the note on fighter generations).
Related and/or duplicate, you decide: Do any commercial airline models have a parachute at rear to help in landings? (Answers are more thorough and include gliders.)