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This question is about the F-117A that was shot down in 1999. How did an obsolete missile like the SA-3 shoot down such an advanced aircraft for its time? This question has nothing to do with how aircraft have become more stealthy. It is specific to the 1999 incident. I am just curious as to how an aircraft this stealthy could have been shot down.

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    $\begingroup$ Explained in part of this answer $\endgroup$ – fooot Jun 28 '17 at 14:46
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    $\begingroup$ Just because something is obsolete doesn't mean it can't take down something technically superior. In WW2, a fleet of Swordfish planes managed to help sink the German ship Bismark. Even though the ship was technically superior than the Swordfish planes, the guns fired too quickly and kept missing the planes which were dreadfully slow. Because of this, the planes were able to get up close and personal with the Bismark and deliver numerous fatal blows. $\endgroup$ – mickburkejnr Jun 28 '17 at 15:00
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    $\begingroup$ It's explained in the wikipedia page. $\endgroup$ – GdD Jun 28 '17 at 15:38
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    $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate of If all fighter jets become stealthy, how will they fight each other in the future? In dogfights? $\endgroup$ – KorvinStarmast Jun 28 '17 at 16:18
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    $\begingroup$ I recall reading they they used a nonstandard frequency that worked better, and it happened while the landing gear door was open. $\endgroup$ – user173724 Jun 29 '17 at 22:07
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"Stealth" does not mean invisible. In fact, there are photographs of F-117s, so clearly, they are visible.

Stealth means less observable than a comparable non-stealth design. A stealth aircraft still has a radar signature, it still generates heat, it still generates noise, and it is still visible … just less so than a non-stealth aircraft.

In this particular case, there was a combination of several factors:

  • The F-117 was the first production stealth aircraft. A lot of things weren't known by then, for example how to integrate sensor pods, radomes, etc. into the faceted hull in such a way as to not negate the stealth characteristics. As a result, the F-117 was pretty starved for sensor data, for example, it didn't have a radar warning system. The pilot literally didn't even know that he was overflying a missile station until he saw the missiles coming at him through the clouds.
  • The F-117s were flying exactly the same route at more or less exactly the same time night after night. That's just shoddy mission planning.
  • The bomb bay is a huge radar reflector, with the doors open, the plane is no longer stealthy. (This is still true for the B-2, BTW.)

So, since they flew the same route every night, it was likely that someone, somewhere would just simply spot or hear them by accident. No matter how stealthy your aircraft is, if someone looks up and you pass between them and, say, the moon, they will see you. Since the route was known, the Yugoslav Army could move their missile station right into the flight path. Since they were also repeatedly bombing the same targets, the Yugoslavs could even make an educated guess at which point the bomb bay doors would be open. They also only had to turn on their radars for short periods of time (again, since they already knew roughly when and where the airplane would be), making it harder to detect them.

And once the missile hits you, it doesn't really matter how old it is. Kaboom is kaboom, regardless of age.

So, to summarize, it was a combination of

  • bad mission planning
  • limited sensor capabilities of the F-117
  • a very clever missile commander (credit where credit is due!)
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    $\begingroup$ It was even worse. The F-117 FCS allows it to fly with utmost precision. Doing this several days in sequence simply meant that the Serbs only had to control their watches and time the missile launch accordingly. $\endgroup$ – Peter Kämpf Jun 29 '17 at 8:28

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